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Instructions for Authors

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Journal of Audiology and Otology (JAO) (formerly known as Korean Journal of Audiology) has been published since 1997. Its continuous nationwide distribution reflects its position as the official journal of the Korean Audiological and Korean Otological Society. It is published in English four times a year in 20th days of January, April, July, and October. We invite the submission of articles on topics pertaining to the science and art of medicine that will help fulfill the journal’s mission of publishing “contemporary, ethical, and clinically relevant information in audiology and otology that can assist otolaryngologists, audiologists, and scientists in hearing science or related fields.”
To prevent the journal from being overrun by inadequate materials or troubled by certain conflicts, the editorial committee has established a set of regulations. Articles that do not contain adequate context or fail to meet editorial regulations are subject to correction recommendations, which may result in delayed publication or rejection. Multiple or duplicate publications that do not satisfy the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47) are strictly forbidden.
Any other necessary regulations that have not been covered by the instruction will follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts.

Editorial Policies

Authorship is accredited only when a substantial contribution to the published work is made by meeting all of the following criteria: organizing the conception design of the project or analysis of the manuscript data, drafting or critically revising the content of the manuscript submitted for publication, and providing final approval for the version to be published. All three criteria must be met for an individual to be listed as an author or co-author on a published paper. Any other form of contribution should be included in the “Acknowledgements” section of the manuscript.
The corresponding author is the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more co-authors. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely way, and should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication. Although the corresponding author has primary responsibility for correspondence with the journal, the JAO recommends that editors send copies of all correspondence to all listed authors.
Manuscripts that include information obtained from human or animal research must provide (in the text or an appropriate footnote) verification of the review and approval of the appropriate institutional research oversight committee for the work reported.
We define plagiarism as a situation in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation. If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).

We endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013) and expect that all investigation involving human materials are performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experiments, all of the processes involved, from the raising of animals to the actual experiment, must proceed according to the guidelines of the appropriate oversight committee. The manuscript must contain a statement declaring that the experiment had been approved by an ethics committee or had followed the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [1996, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources) Committee on NRC, National Academic Press pp125, www.nao.edu/readingroom/books/labrats/index.html]. If these terms are not satisfied, the “Guiding Principles Editor-in-Chief” has the right to reject a manuscript. The authors must keep all the original laboratory data used for the articles and be able to submit them at the request of the editorial committee. For other policies regarding research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, authors can refer to ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html)’ or ‘Guidelines on good publication (http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines)’.
Upon the acceptance of an article, the authors should download the “Copyright Release and Author Agreement”. The copyright transfer agreement should be completed and submitted electronically when the manuscript is submitted. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Articles published in JAO are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Conflict of interest
Authors must disclose any financial, personal, and/or institutional relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest in the manuscript. If there is no conflict of interest, this should also be stated explicitly as none declared. All sources of funding should be stated in the “Funding Statements” section.


The Journal of Audiology and Otology accepts five categories of publications: Original articles, Review articles, Brief communications, Case reports, and Letters to the editor, focused on basic science and clinical issues.

Original articles are papers containing the results of basic and clinical investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers.

Review articles are usually solicited by the Editor-in-Chief and describe a concise review on subjects of importance to Audiology and Otology researches.

Case reports as well as Brief communications present new, unique or creative concepts on important issues in Audiology and Otology fields.

Letter to the editor are selected for publications that discuss problems of general interest. Letters may be subject to review by the Editorial Board. The letters are intended to reflect the range of opinions received. The authors of the paper in question (authors of the original article) are usually given an opportunity to reply.


  1. 1. Format: Manuscript must be written in English using MS word. It should be formatted with double line-spacing for printing on one side of A4 (21×29.7 cm) sheets with a margin of at least 2.5 cm on all sides.
  2. 2. Terms: Authors are advised to use terminology recommended by the ISO-IEC, Nomina Anatomica and WHO list.
  3. 3. Units of measurement: Authors should express all measurements in “Le Systeme International d’Units” (SI units). For example, length should be expressed in meters and temperature in Celsius.
  4. 4. Abbreviations: Except for units of measurement, abbreviations are strongly discouraged. Except for units of measurement, when an abbreviation appears for the first time, it should be preceded by the words it represents.

Manuscripts containing research data generally follow the order: Title page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgements and Declaration of Interest, References, Tables, and Figures.
Title page
Title page should include (1) title of the article (less than 30 words), (2) full names of all authors without academic degrees, (3) institutional affiliations of each author (If multiple affiliations are listed, they should be written in the same line after matching the authors with the affiliations with superscript Arabic numerals), (4) running title (less than 15 words) reflecting the content, (5) and full information for corresponding authors including the name, degree, institutional affiliation, address, country telephone and fax number, and e-mail address.
Abstract and Key words
An abstract of NO MORE THAN 300 words for original article must be organized and formatted according to the following headings: Background and Objectives, Subjects (Materials) and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Each subtitle is bolded and differentiated with a colon (:). The subtitles do not change the lines at the end of their content. However, except for the original article, the maximum length of abstract is 200 words without the specific headings. Keywords is in order to aid online searching, five keywords should be listed using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database of the National Library of Medicine.
The text is to be divided into five sections with the following headings: Introduction, Subjects (Materials) and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Define abbreviations at the first mentioned text and for each table and figure. If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer’s name and address (city and state/country). The maximum length of manuscript is 3,500 words in English (excluding the title page and abstract). The maximum number of images is 10. In letter to editor, maximum word count of manuscript is 500, only one table and one figure are allowed each.


Brief background and references to the most pertinent papers are generally enough to inform the readers, and the relevant findings of others may be described. The specific questions evaluated by the authors’ particular investigation should also be included.

Subjects (Materials) and Methods

This should be organized as follows: research plan, selection of participants, methods, and lastly, statistical analysis. To maintain the anonymity of participants, the names of research facilities should not be revealed. Explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and sufficient for repetition by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures require full descriptions. The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be provided along with their location (name of company, city and state, and country). The authors must present the name and place of the clinical trial ethics committee that oversaw the experiment, and provide a statement declaring that the experiment meets the standards of the Helsinki declaration of 2013. Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance. Pictures should not reveal the name or identification numbers of the patients involved. With animal investigations, the authors must also provide a statement that the animals were treated according to the guidelines of the national research committee. The methods for statistical analyses and the criteria applied for significance levels should be described. The name of the program used to compute the data must be provided as well. In Case Reports, case history or case description replace the Case Report section as well as the Results section.


This part should be presented logically using text, tables and illustrations. Excessive repetition of table or figure contents should be avoided. At the end of the Results section, important observations should be emphasized or summarized.


The data should be interpreted concisely without repeating materials already presented in the Results section. Speculation is permitted, but it must be supported by the data presented and be well founded.


All persons who have made substantial contributions, but who are not eligible as authors are named in the acknowledgments section.


The maximum number of references that can be cited is 40 for original articles, 15 for brief communications and case reports, and 10 for letter to editor. There is no limit to the number of references in review articles. All references (double-spaced) should be listed in the order of citation in the text with corresponding numbers. For papers with six or more authors, list the first six authors then add “et al.” (List all authors up to a maximum of six). Identify references [in square brackets] in the text by providing the corresponding number. For example, “K-HINT has been developed [1, 2].” for the first two in-text citations. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the Index Medicus. Authors should compile lists of references for their publications in accordance with the Citing Medicine, NLM style guide.

1. References to journal

i. When a work has six or fewer authors
Ex) Auwens LJ, Veldman JE, Bouman H, Ramaekers FCS, Huizing EH. Expression of intermediate filaments proteins in the adult human cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1991;100:211-8.

ii. When a work has seven or more authors
Ex) Reiss LA, Ito RA, Eggleston JL, Liao S, Becker JJ, Lakin CE, et al. Pitch adaptation patterns in bimodal cochlear implant users: over time and after experience. Ear Hear 2015;36:e23-34.

2. References to entire book

Ex) Park IY, Yoon JH, Lee JG, Chung IH. Surgical anatomy of the nose. 1st ed. Seoul, Korea: Academy;2001. p.90-100.

3. References to book chapter

Ex.) Bluestone CD, Klein JO. Otitis media, atelectasis, and Eustachian tube obstruction. In: Blueston CD, edior. Pediatric Otolaryngology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders;1996. p.480-1.

4. References to unpublished sources: To cite unpublished material such as papers presented at conference proceedings, unpublished dissertations, any manuscripts ‘in press’ or personal communication, provide the details as follows.

i. Conference proceedings:
Ex) Virolainen A, Saxen H, Leinonen N. Antibody response to pneumolysin in children with acute otitis media. In: Lim DJ, Bluestone CD, Klein JO, Nelson JD, Ogura PL, editors. Recent advances in otitis media. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media; 1991 May 20-24: Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Hamilton: Decker Periodicals; 1993. p.205-6.
ii. Dissertation
Ex) Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly’s access and utilization [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ.;1995.
iii. References to In press
Ex) Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Eng J Med In press 1996.

5. References to electronic material

i. Journal article in electronic format
Ex) Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases, Emerg Infect Dis [serial online]1995 jan-mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm.
ii. Monograph in electronic format
Ex) CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated (monograph on CD-ROM). Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA;1995.


Tables must be cited in the order in which they appear in the text using Arabic numerals and the word processing program should be used to create the tables. Do not use Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs. Provide the tables together with the manuscript in a DOC file. Cite tables consecutively in the text, and number them in that order. Place each on a separate sheet, and include the table title, appropriate column headings, and explanatory legends (including definitions of any abbreviations used). Do not embed tables within the body of the manuscript. For footnotes, use the following symbols in sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, and ‡‡. All units of measurement and concentration should be designated. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge them fully. Stating the names of participants should be avoided and names should be replaced with Arabic numerals.


Figures can be in black-and-white or in color, depending on the author’s preference. However, if a black-and-white picture does not provide sufficient information, the editorial committee has the right to request a colored picture and the authors must make the necessary corrections.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.


In the manuscript, legends for illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. If several pictures are designated with a single Arabic numeral, each picture must be differentiated with alphabets (ex: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, and Fig. 1C).

Illustration and Resolution

Digital images of manuscript illustrations should be submitted in a suitable format for print publication. Most submission systems have detailed instructions on the quality of images and check them after manuscript upload. However, the images must have adequate resolution for printed materials, and if not, the committee may ask the author to provide more suitable pictures.
For print submissions, figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. For radiological and other clinical and diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send high-resolution photographic image files. Before-and-after images should be taken with the same intensity, direction, and color of light. Since blots are used as primary evidence in many scientific articles, editors may require deposition of the original photographs of blots on the journal’s website.
Digital art needs to be submitted as TIFF, EPS, or PPT files during the review process. However, TIF files must be submitted once the publication has been approved. Color images must be submitted as CMYK files, but half tone pictures (CT or MRI) must be converted to grayscale mode. Electronic photographs (radiographs, CT/MRI scans, and scanned images) must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Line art must have a resolution of at least 800 dpi.
Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Other Considerations

If an author decides to submit a facial picture, the eyes must be covered, and the individual’s information must be omitted to make identification impossible. Please note that all images or drawings submitted will not be returned.

※ Other requirements are in accordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, October 2008.


To submit to the Journal of Audiology and Otology, manuscripts should be submitted electronically through http://submit.ejao.org. Application is accepted all through the year, and submitted manuscripts are reviewed by experts in the related field. Peer reviewers carefully evaluate the manuscript and check the validity of the research methodology and procedures. If the manuscript is appropriate, acceptance or revision is suggested. If the submitted manuscript lacks scholarly validity and rigor, the manuscript is rejected. Payment must be received in full before publication. Any errors discovered after publication is the responsibility of the authors. Once a manuscript is accepted for publication by the journal, the editorial board provides the corresponding author with galley proofs to review and make corrections. Authors must respond to the page proofs as soon as possible after making necessary corrections. If a response is not received by the designated date, the editorial committee may delay or even reject the article. To avoid such events, the editorial committee office urges our contributors to proofread the manuscripts carefully.


Journal of Audiology and Otology (JAO) reviews all manuscripts received. A manuscript is first reviewed for its format and adherence to the aims and scope of the journal. If the manuscript meets these two criteria, it is dispatched to two investigators in the field with relevant knowledge. Assuming the manuscript is sent to reviewers, JAO waits to receive opinions from at least two reviewers. In addition, if deemed necessary, a review of statistics may be requested. The authors’ names and affiliations are removed during peer review. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its scientific significance. Acceptance of the manuscript is decided based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. An initial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receipt of a manuscript, and the reviewers’ comments are sent to the corresponding author by e-mail. The corresponding author must indicate the alterations that have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments item by item. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 4 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. A final decision on acceptance/rejection for publication is forwarded to the corresponding author from the editor.


Although there is no submission fee at the initial step, article charges are required for publication in the Journal of Audiology and Otology. These cover some of the costs of publication as well as open access online editions in the journal website (http://www. ejao.org) or in the PubMed Central (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/2765/). Invoice will be sent to the corresponding author when the submitted article is finally accepted. The charge is USD 300 per article and should be paid within 2 weeks. Invited Review Article, Editorial, and, Letter to the Editor and its response will be waived.

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Editorial Office
The Catholic University of Korea, Institute of Biomedical Industry, 4017
222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-2-3784-8551    Fax: +82-0505-115-8551    E-mail: jao@smileml.com                

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